The most significant difference between the old passport and the new one is the addition of a page detailing all the security features.
Some of the security features can be observed by looking at the information page from different angles. Was tilting my passport around while standing and waiting for the train yesterday when a Jehovah's witness approached, handed me a pamphlet and wished me luck(?).
Other features require that you hold the information page up to a light source. Took care of that with a flashlight this morning.
Now I just need a UV-light source...